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ACMELLA
Principal indication: expression wrinkles
PURE ACTIVE A04
Bibliographical summary
 
  • INCI name: ACMELLA OLERACEA
    EXTRACT
  • Extract of Acmella oleracea flowers and stems titrated into Spilanthol
 

Spilanthol is extracted from the Acmella oleracea plant. Spilanthol offers interesting bioactivities. It is a local anaesthetic and an analgesic and it also has insecticide activities. Acmella oleracea or Spilanthes acmella is a medicinal plant, also known by the name of Phak-Kratt-Huawaen in Thai. It has long been used in traditional medicine to relieve toothache, headaches, asthma and rheumatism. The decoction of its roots has been used as a laxative and diuretic agent. This plant is composed of Spilanthol but also of isobutylamide derivatives, α-esters and β-amyrin, stigmasterol, myricyl alcohol including sitosterol glucosides and triterpenoid saponins. Studies have shown that the constituents of Acmella oleracea present antioxidant, vasodilatory and antimicrobial activities.
Moreover, this extract is used widely in cosmetics as a myorelaxant and to stimulate, reorganize and reinforce the collagen network.

 

  • ACTION MECHANISMS / PROOFS OF EFFECTIVENESS

Because we smile, frown, laugh and speak, our face's skin is subjected to thousands of involuntary microcontractions every day, which lead to the formation of fine lines. These fine lines may become more visible and deeper wrinkles over time. It is precisely because of a myorelaxant mechanism that slows down these microcontractions that Acmella oleracea extract is an effective agent on expression wrinkles. Furthermore, over time, the number and activity of the fibroblasts diminishes and the architecture of the extracellular matrix is modified. The reduction in the adhesion of the fibroblasts to the collagen matrix and the reduction of fibroblast / extracellular matrix interactions is one cause of the disorganization of the collagen network that leads to a loss of firmness and an increase in wrinkles. The effect of Acmella oleracea on the collagen network will help to firm the skin and reduce wrinkles.

 

In vitro, Acmella oleracea extracts present antioxidant activities [2].
Spilanthol, the active isolated from Acmella oleracea, is a fast-working myorelaxant. Although its action mechanism is not yet known, Spilanthol has shown a fast-working and progressive myorelaxant ability, even at low concentrations (Patent, USPTO Application: 20070048245).

It has been demonstrated that only 0.6% of the extract is necessary to obtain complete myorelaxation on a model reproducing muscular contractions [1]. A study on reconstructed skin confirms the stability of the active, which is just as effective in a formulation. Its dose-dependant and reversible activity has been confirmed. It is interesting to note that, after 24 hours, a residual effectiveness subsists at a 3% concentration of Acmella oleracea extract [1].

Moreover, a 0.25% Acmella oleracea extract stimulates the contractile force of the fibroblasts (cell/collagen fibre interaction increased), which will help to firm and tighten the dermis [3].
In vivo, Acmella oleracea extracts have been tested on volunteers in a 2% formulation. These results show a perceptible effect on the cutaneous microrelief as of the first day owing to the ultra-fast-working action of the extract (botox-like) and a lasting action after 28 days' treatment. The depth and length of wrinkles are reduced and the skin is smoother and markedly firmer [3].

 

  • OUR EXPERT'S OPINION
Spilanthol belongs to a chemical family with a relatively simple structure. From a pharmacological point of view, it is related to Carisoprodol (a synthetic pharmaceutical active), to which it can be compared for its in vitro myorelaxant activity.

 

The polyenic structure gives it antioxidant properties.

Its good hydrophilic/lipophilic ratio assists its absorption by the skin and makes it a serious candidate for moderate myorelaxation with potential antinociceptive power.

It has the advantage of its natural origin.

We have no information on the duration of the effect, which is thought to depend on the dose applied and the formula.

 

  • EFFECTIVE DOSE
The body of publications and scientific studies, customary usages of this active and our expert's opinion concur in using Acmella pure Active at the dose of 30 mg per bottle.

 

 

  • SCIENTIFIC STUDIES
    [1]

     

     Activity Method and Duration Products tested and dose Results
    Myorelaxant
    activity
     The myorelaxant activity of the extract was tested on a model reproducing muscular contractions. This model is produced by the co-culture of motor neurones with human muscle cells forming oxidative muscle fibres which, once innervated, contract spontaneously. The muscle contractions were counted with and without Acmella oleracea extract.
    The study was then repeated, this time with application of a cream containing 3% Acmella oleracea extract on reconstructed skin (composed of dermis and epidermis), so as to assess its ability to maintain effectiveness after topical application.

     Extract of Acmella oleracea at 0.6%

    Formulation based on extract of Acmella oleracea at 3%

    It was demonstrated that only 0.6% of the extract is necessary to obtain complete myorelaxation. The blockage process is wholly dependent on the concentration of the extract tested. Once complete myorelaxation is obtained, the culture medium is washed to eliminate the Acmella oleracea extract. The results show the progressive return of muscle contractions, proving the reversibility of the effect.

    The study on reconstructed skin confirms the stability of the active, which is just as effective in a formulation. Its dose-dependant and reversible activity was confirmed. It is interesting to note that, after 24 hours, a residual effectiveness subsists at a 3% concentration of Acmella oleracea extract.
    This may suggest a potentially interesting cumulative effect when it is used daily

     

    • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

    [2] Vasorelaxant and Antioxidant Activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. Wongsawatkul O. et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9(12) : 2724-2744. 2008
    [3] A different approach to lifting efficacy based on a natural active ingredient. Schubnel L. SÖFW Journal, 133(9): 34-39. 2007

    This information is given for informative purposes. In no event does it constitute medical information, nor engage our liability. These documents may be copied and reproduced exclusively for informative purposes for personal and private use. All and any use of copies or reproductions for other purposes is expressly forbidden and shall engage the user's liability under Article L 122-3 of the Intellectual Property Code.