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ARGAN

Principal indication: first wrinkles

PURE ACTIVE A02
Bibliographical summary
 
  • INCI name : ARGANIA SPINOSA LEAF
    EXTRACT
  • Argan leaf extract (Argania spinosa)
    With a guaranteed Polyphenol content
 The Argan tree (Argania spinosa) is a very sturdy tree that grows mainly in the arid land of southern Morocco. The use of Argan leaves is recent. Until now, only the fruit kernels were used to obtain the famous argan oil.
Scientific studies have proven that Argan leaves are very rich in phenolic compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids).
In the plant kingdom, they are among the secondary metabolites produced by plants and are often behind defence mechanisms and plant colour. Of these polyphenols, the flavonoids form a group of almost 4,000 molecules!
Since their discovery in the 1930s, these molecules have been widely studied and used for their numerous benefits to the organism. In the skin, polyphenols and, more particularly, flavonoids protect the macromolecules in the dermis, one of which is collagen.

 

  • ACTION MECHANISMS / PROOFS OF EFFECTIVENESS

 

The flavonoids belong to the large family of polyphenols, molecules known for their various biological activities. Their properties are described in the literature: anti-free radical, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiallergic, antiviral and as stimulants for the immune defences [1, 2, 3].
In the skin, these molecules act as protectors of the dermal matrix and its collagen network by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes synthesized by the fibroblasts:

  • Inhibition of MMP (Matrix Metalloproteinase) and collagenases/elastase [4, 5].

 

It has been demonstrated that flavonoids are molecules capable of inhibiting collagenase MMP-1 as well as MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12 [4, 5]. The reduced expression of MMPs has been shown to be dose-dependent [5]. These enzymes are found naturally in the skin and are behind the degradation of collagen fibres. By effectively limiting their production, flavonoids are thought to help to protect the skin from the first signs of ageing.

  • Anti-free radical activity

 

Exposure to UV rays is known to generate reactive oxygen species or ROSs. These free radicals then react with the DNA, the fatty acids and the sugars and cause damage to as well as premature ageing of the skin [2].
Scientific studies have demonstrated that the particular structure of polyphenols, including flavonoids, enables them to effectively capture the free radicals and therefore to combat photo-ageing [1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9].
Moreover, flavonoids inhibit nitric oxide synthetase, the enzyme that generates nitric oxide (a free radical found in the blood circulation). They also reduce the production of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which is a source of free radicals [8].

  • Anti-inflammatory, soothing activity [3, 8]

 

Scientific research has revealed the ability of the flavonoids found in plants to alleviate inflammatory reaction. The structural variability of flavonoids brings about multiple action mechanisms [3]. These molecules inhibit cyclooxygenase, phospholipase A2 and lipoxygenase [3, 8]. These enzymes act at the base of the inflammation by generating arachidonic acid, the acid precursor to the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In limiting inflammatory reaction, flavonoids help to soothe the skin in a lasting manner.
Owing to its anti-free radical and soothing properties and its ability to protect the cutaneous matrix, Argan pure Active, an Argan leaf extract with a guaranteed polyphenol content, is an excellent candidate for taking effective action against the first wrinkles and other signs of ageing.

 

  • EFFECTIVE DOSE

 

The body of bibliographical studies and customary usages of this active concur in using Argan pure Active at the dose of 20 mg per bottle.

 

  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

[1] Structure antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acid. Rice-Evans CA et al. Free Radical Biology & Medecine, 20(7): 933-986. 1996.
[2] Natural phenolics in the prevention of UV-induced skin damage. Svobodová A et al. Biomed. Papers, 147(2) : 137-145. 2003
[3] Anti-inflammatory Plant Flavonoids and Cellular Action Mechanisms. Hyun Pyo Kim et al. J Pharmacol Sci 99: 229-245. 2004.
[4] Inhibition of Collagenase by Naturally-Occurring flavonoids. Bo Young Sin et Hyun Pyo Kim. Arch Pharm Res, 28(10): 1152-1155. 2005
[5] Structure Activity Relationship of Antioxidative Property of Flavonoids and Inhibitory Effect on Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblast. Sim GS et al. Arch Pharm Res, 30(3) : 290-298. 2007.
[6] Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. Heim KE et al. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 13: 572-584. 2002.
[7] Flavonoid (Myricetin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Luteolin, and Apigenin) Content of Edible Tropical Plants. Koo Hui Miean et Suhaila Mohamed. J Agric Food Chem. 49(6):3106-12. 2001.
[8] Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Nijveldt RJ et al. Am J Clin Nutr 74: 418-25. 2001.
[9] Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds. Kähkönen MP et al. J Agri Food Chem. 47 : 3954-3962. 1999.

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