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RUTIN
Principal indication: red blotchy skin
PURE ACTIVE A42
Bibliographical summary
 
  • INCI name : RUTIN
  • Molecule 94% pure extracted from Fava d’Anta and Uncaria leaves
 

Rutin is part of the flavonoid family. It is a diglycoside composed of quercetin and rutinose (rhamnose and glucose). Rutin is found in numerous plant species.

In the United States, rutin has been considered as an official medication in the treatment of capillary haemorrhages caused by fragility of the blood capillaries in instances of degenerative vascular diseases, diabetes and allergic manifestation. Although rutin is no longer one of the official medications, it is widely used as a complement.

The best known pharmacological activity of this molecule is the reduction of permeability and capillary fragility.
In the 1940s and 1950s, rutin was widely described for this activity. At the time, rutin, which belonged to the "vitamin P" family, the P referring to the idea of Permeability, grouped together the actives capable of increasing the resistance and modulating the permeability of the capillaries. Today, the term "Vitamin P" has disappeared, to be replaced by bioflavonoid.

Rutin also protects the tissues from degeneration phenomena, particular during the non-enzymatic degradation of collagen by free radical.

Rutin therefore finds an interesting use in cosmetics.

  • ACTION MECHANISMS / PROOFS OF EFFECTIVENESS

Rosacea is a dermatological disease characterized by a permanent vasodilation of the capillaries, caused by the deficiency of the muscle sphincters. Rutin reduces the permeability and fragility of the capillaries [1-5]. Through its protective effect on the walls, this molecule inhibits platelet aggregation and reduces capillary permeability in order to improve blood flow and diminish vasodilation.

• Protective effect on the walls of the blood vessels:

The flavonoids, particularly rutin, are known to make the walls of the blood vessels stronger. When a capillary wall is too fragile, it is in danger of rupturing, bringing about an abnormal blood flow into the skin. This phenomenon is characterized by petechia and telangiectasia (abnormal vascular dilation). Rutin, through its anti-free radical activity, will be able to protect these walls [6]. This flavonoid is capable of neutralizing the free radicals formed during phagocytosis.

• Prevention of platelet aggregation:

The main objective of the platelet aggregation process is to seal the blood vessels to prevent blood loss in the event of damage. Platelet adhesion may also occur, when no signal regarding damaged tissue has been sent. In this case, small aggregates form, hindering blood flow in the capillary. The obstructed blood vessel has to intensify the flow via the surrounding blood vessels. This may cause several phenomena such as an increase in fluid pressure in the capillaries, an increase in the permeability of these same capillaries, a permanent dilation of the blood vessels or telangiectasia. The other consequence may be a rupture in the blood vessel, leading to the formation of petechia. It has been shown that rutin may initially inhibit the activation of phospholipase C, bringing with it, via a sequence of reactions, the inhibition of platelet aggregation [7]. Moreover, rutin, through its ability to complex with calcium ions, will enable the conversion of prothrombin into inhibitor-thrombin and, therefore, clot formation [7].

• Reduction of capillary permeability:

An increase in capillary permeability during inflammation results in the excessive release of plasma into the extracellular spaces and leads to the formation of oedemas. The flavonoids, particularly rutin, are used to reduce this permeability. Finally, rutin inhibits the PAF (platelet-activating factor) and thromboxane A2, thus helping to diminish capillary permeability [8].

  • OUR EXPERT'S OPINION

The flavonoid of choice, this molecule from the plant world has undergone a great many uses and studies based on the properties that reinforce the blood vessel walls, prevent the degradation of connective tissue, and reduce capillary leak. The effects of malfunctions in capillary microcirculation can unfortunately only be observed over the long term and are more preventive than curative. Combination with vitamin C has often been suggested and is considered complementary.

A certain degree of confusion may hinder the comparison between the various compounds that can be used; troxerutin is the most used in medical applications, phenol OHs are better protected and increased lipophilia is favourable to penetration. Quercetin is the aglycone form formed after the action of the organism's esterases.

The contribution of rhamnose from the glucoside part of rutin may be interesting in its activity, but unfortunately is not documented. Oral use is well documented. On the other hand, topical use alone is poorly covered, particularly in the medical field.

By default, the dose of 2% has been suggested for topical use.

  • EFFECTIVE DOSE

The body of publications and scientific studies, customary usages of this active and our expert's opinion concur in using Rutin pure Active at the dose of 270 mg per bottle.

  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

[1] The effect of rutin on capillary fragility and permeability. Frericks CT et al, J Lab Clin Med, 35(6): 933-939. 1950.

[2] Rutin and capillary fragility. Johnson EF et al, Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health, 118: 164-175. 1946.

[3] Effect of rutin (rutinion) on capillary permeability. Blaich W et al, Arztl Wochensch, 5(36): 696-698. 1950.

[4] Rutin; a new drug for the treatment of increased capillary fragility. Shanno RL, Am J Med Sci, 211: 539-543. 1946.

[5] Rutin in Capillary Fragility. Bacharach AL et al, Br Med J, 2: 273. 1947.

[6] In vitro antioxidant properties of rutin. Yang J et al. LWT 41, 1060-1066. 2008.

[7] Mechanisms involved in the anti-platelet activity of rutin, a glycoside of the flavonol quercetin, in human platelets. Sheu J.R et al. J Agric Food Chem, 52(14): 4414. 2004.

[8] Experimental study on inhibitory effect of rutin against platelet activation induced by platelet activating factor in rabbits. Chen WM et al, 22(4): 283-285. 2002.


This information is given for informative purposes. In no event does it constitute medical information, nor engage our liability. These documents may be copied and reproduced exclusively for informative purposes for personal and private use. All and any use of copies or reproductions for other purposes is expressly forbidden and shall engage the user's liability under Article L 122-3 of the Intellectual Property Code.