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VITAMIN PP
Principal indication: severe and constitutive skin dryness
PURE ACTIVE A30
Bibliographical summary
 
  • INCI name : NIACINAMIDE
  • Molecule 99% pure obtained by biosynthesis
 

Also called vitamin B3 or niacin, vitamin PP (like vitamins B1 and B2) plays a role in the organism's use of energy (energy metabolism) at rest. The organism is capable of synthesizing vitamin PP from tryptophan. It is found particularly in meat and fish. Vitamin PP is a hydrosoluble vitamin, composed of nicotinic acid (niacin) and its amide, nicotinamide (niacinamide).

Vitamin PP is the source of two important coenzymes: NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). These coenzymes take part in more than 200 enzymatic reactions in the organism. Vitamin PP is therefore part and parcel of a great number of functions. In particular, it enables the degradation and use of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It plays a role in the formation of red blood corpuscles, blood circulation, oxygen transport to the cells and in the function of the digestive and nervous systems.

 

  • ACTION MECHANISMS / PROOFS OF EFFECTIVENESS

Its properties are used topically to improve the skin's barrier function, to accelerate cell differentiation and cicatrization and for its anti-inflammatory effects [1].

• Improvement of the skin's barrier function

Vitamin PP, or niacinamide, stimulates lipid synthesis in the corneous layer [2]. These lipids are composed mainly of ceramides, cholesterol, cholesterol esters and fatty acids and constitute a cement, thus limiting water loss. Two clinical studies have proven that Vitamin PP increases the skin's barrier function, reduces irritation in the presence of irritant agents and improves skin texture [2].

This restructuring effect on the cutaneous barrier can be assessed by measuring the Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL). A reduction in TEWL is the sign of epidermal restructuring.

• Moisturizing property

Vitamin PP significantly reduces water loss from the epidermis and increases moisturization of the stratum corneum [3, 4].

This vitamin increases the activity of Serine Palmitoyltransferase, the key enzyme in the synthesis of sphingosines and ceramides. This active also ensures cell cohesion and has an important role in skin moisturization (water retention and slowing down evaporation). Niacinamide also stimulates the expression of the coding-mRNAs for the two subunits of this enzyme [5].

Vitamin PP is a moisturizing active that can be used to combat atopic conditions and severe skin dryness [3, 6].

• Anti-inflammatory

Numerous scientific studies have revealed the anti-inflammatory properties of Vitamin PP [4].

 

  • OUR EXPERT'S OPINION

The precursor of the ubiquitous oxidoreduction coenzymes NAD/NADH and NADP/NADPH. Its biochemical action is known in skin metabolism. The beneficial action on the reconstruction of the barrier effect and the intercorneocyte cement has been claimed.
Sirtuin inhibition is mentioned but the clinical consequences have not been very clearly established. Gene stimulation is possible through various mechanisms. Inhibition of Poly Adp Ribose Polymerase (PARP) is mentioned, as is inhibition of inflammatory cytokines.

Used in dermo-cosmetics products intended for eczema, the dose does not seem to have been clearly established: 1 to 2% seems to result in a good level of satisfaction among patients. The progress of investigations on this active may make it an even more interesting tool in the treatment of certain dermatological pathologies (eczema, psoriasis).

 

  • EFFECTIVE DOSE
The body of publications and scientific studies, customary usages of this active and our expert's opinion concur in using Vitamin PP pure Active at the dose of 290 mg per bottle.

 

 

  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

[1] Nicotinic acid / niacinamide and the skin. Gehring W. J Cosmet Dermatol., 3(2): 88-93. 2004.
[2] Textbook of cosmetic dermatology. Robert Baran, Howard I Maibach, third edition, 2005, Taylor& Francis, 103-113
[3] Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin. Soma Y et al. Int J Dermatol. 44(3):197-202. 2005.
[4] Nicotinamide in dermatology. Kim et al. Expert Review of Dermatology. 5(1): 23-29. 2010
[5] Niacinamide increases biosynthesis of ceramides as well as other stratum corneum lipids to improve the permeability barrier. Tanno O et al. Br J Dermatol, 143(3): 524-531. 2000.
[6] Advances in the application of nicotinamide in dermatology. Tian H. International journal of dermatology and venereology, Volume 35, Issue 02, 2009.

This information is given for informative purposes. In no event does it constitute medical information, nor engage our liability. These documents may be copied and reproduced exclusively for informative purposes for personal and private use. All and any use of copies or reproductions for other purposes is expressly forbidden and shall engage the user's liability under Article L 122-3 of the Intellectual Property Code.